הכשרת דור העתיד של מנהיגות הארגונים החברתיים

מאת ליז ליווינגסטון הווארד 

מנהלת התכנית להכשרת מנהלים בארגונים ללא מטרות רווח, קלוג - בית הספר לניהול באוניברסיטת נורת'ווסטרן, שיקגו

 

 כישורי מנהיגות וניהול מהווים הכרח להצלחה בזירה הפילנתרופית. ארגונים חברתיים מסתמכים על מנהיגים אשר מחויבים למשימה ולהנהגה יעילה ואפקטיבית. מנהיגים צעירים בתחום ניצבים בפני זירה משתנה, בה נדרשת קשת של כישורים על מנת לקדם שינוי חברתי. לאחרונה, יותר ויותר מנהיגים צעירים רוצים ללמוד ולהכשיר את עצמם להובלת ארגונים, לשכלל את ארגז הכלים שלהם ואת ההבנה של עקרונות ניהול מתקדמים - על מנת שיוכלו להוביל ולנהל את הארגונים שבראשם הם עומדים באופן אפקטיבי יותר ולמען השפעה גדולה יותר.

מגמה זו של פיתוח מקצועי באה בדיוק בזמן. כישורי מנהיגות וניהול בעמותות הופכים לקריטיים כאשר ארגונים נאלצים לעשות יותר עם פחות ופחות משאבים, פיננסיים ואנושיים כאחד. המחסור הכלכלי המתפתח בארה"ב משפיע גם על ארגונים פילנתרופיים, אשר אין בידם גישה לשוק ההון ולכן הם נאלצים להפיק את המיטב מהמעט שיש להם.

לצד זאת, אנו עדים לשינוי נוסף בעולם הפילנתרופיה - התפתחות מודלים ארגוניים חדשניים ממוקדי השפעה. חידושים אלה יוצרים הזדמנויות לשילוב בין העולם העסקי ועשיית טוב. דוגמה לכך היא התאגדות המכונה בארה"ב 'תאגיד חברתי' (Benefit Corporation), כלומר תאגידים למטרת רווח אשר חולקים עם בעלי העניין שלהם את ההבנה שהצלחתם נמדדת לא רק בשורת הרווח, אלא גם בהשפעה החברתית והסביבתית החיובית שלהם.

התרחבות זו של פלטפורמות ארגוניות בזירה החברתית היא דבר חיובי. לאור העובדה שהבעיות החברתיות של ימינו נהיות יותר ויותר מורכבות, ארגונים זקוקים לאנשים חכמים ומוכשרים שיעסקו במציאת פתרונות יצירתיים. למרבה המזל, מוסדות רבים להשכלה גבוהה תומכים במנהיגים אלו עם תכניות המספקות הזדמנויות להכשרה מקיפה ולפיתוח כישורים רלוונטיים. המרכז שלנו בקלוג מחויב לקידום מנהיגים מסורים ולפיתוחם המקצועי על ידי שילוב של אנשי אקדמיה ומומחים מהשטח, אשר באים ממגוון רחב של ארגונים חברתיים.

המשמעות של פילנתרופיה בעולם הגלובלי שבו אנו חיים כיום, הולכת ומשתנה. צעירים מעוניינים יותר מבעבר להיות חלק מהשינוי ועלינו לספק להם דרכים רבות ככל הניתן לעשות זאת.

Meet the Professional: Maya Lapid Edut

A Conversation with Maya Lapid Edut, Director of "Committed to Give"

By Ilil Comay-Dror, Marom Group

 

Just before the end of the Hebrew year, we spoke with Maya Lapid Edut, the director of Committed to Give, about social investors in Israel and the initiative she is directing.

Committed to Give

"Committed to Give - An Initiative to Promote Private Giving in Israel" was established by a group of social investors and funders with the goal of increasing the number of investors in the Israeli social sector in a significant and sustainable manner. Their activities include introductory sessions, workshops, social investment circles, networking and joint thinking sessions with various donors. The initiative is based on three principles: role models as motivation for action; exposure to the social and personal added-value of investment; and practical tools for gaining experience with social investment.

 

Potential Contribution in Israel

In order to understand the extent of funds available from private donors in the nonprofit sector in Israel, and how much contributions potential of sources in Israel and abroad, Committed to Give conducted several surveys. These surveys provide the most comprehensive data to date on the size and characteristics of private giving in Israel, as well as public opinion of philanthropy in Israel. According to Lapid Edut, there are barriers to giving in Israel and a need to nurture philanthropy within the Israeli society. By collecting and centralizing this knowledge, Committed to Give helps spur conversation and raise awareness of charitable giving to overcome these barriers.

Interestingly, the surveys found that unlike American donors, Israeli donors are not particularly motivated by tax exemptions. However, these exemptions do encourage existing donors to give more. In addition, Israeli social investors like to be involved in the day-to-day operations of the organization they have established or contributed to and often become experts in those respective fields. While this model of engaged donors can be inspirational to some new investors, it can be intimidating to others.

Another significant difference between Israeli and American funders is that Israelis do not find public recognition as an important factor in their giving. One of the reasons is that their aversion to being instantly overwhelmed by requests for donations. In addition, they recognize a widespread hatred towards the wealthy within Israeli society and fear that if the public learns they are “capable” of charitable giving this hatred might be directed at them.

By "capable", Lapid Edut refers to people who have the four T's: Ties, Talent, Time and Treasure, and are able to share them with others. They can share their network of connections, contribute their professional skills, give their time, and donate money from their private funds.

 

What characterizes donors in Israel?

It is estimated that there are about 10,000 households in Israel with at least $5 million in capital available. However, only about 1,000 of them contribute more than $25,000 a year to the Israeli nonprofit sector. While this number remains relatively low, it represents a trend of increasing Israeli giving overall.

According to Lapid Edut, this is good news. It demonstrates that Israeli giving is growing and the Israeli public is contributing more. The total donations from Israeli households grew by 15%, and about a half of this growth originated from an increase in contributions of over 100,000 NIS. At the same time, Israeli giving is still random, casual and responsive, meaning that only those who are approached tend to contribute. Although the majority of donations are of small sums, they accumulate to about 3 billion NIS a year. The most common example is crowdfunding campaigns, which are generally very successful in Israel. Only an additional 1 billion NIS comes from contributions of over 100,000 NIS.

Those who are capable of giving can give differently. They can shift from donation to social investment. Private donations to the nonprofit sector in Israel can enable more risk-taking, conducting pilots, and investment in research and development and impact measurement. Committed to Give encourages funders to examine the added value of their giving, think about what causes they want to be involved with, and generally regard giving as an investment with social returns. They can change the rules of the game by translating their entrepreneurial and business skills to the nonprofit world and developing infrastructure and social innovation in organizations.

According to a survey entitled Philanthropy of Israelis (2012-2015)," Israeli philanthropy accounts for 35% of all donations in Israel. Philanthropic donations per capita in Israel were $179, and philanthropy as a percentage of the GNP is 0.52%. While Israel’s donations per capita and philanthropy as a percentage of GNP are similar to those in Europe, they remain significantly lower than in Britain and the United States. In the United States, the percentage of household giving is twice as much as Israeli household giving.

 

What motivates Israeli donors?

People with means are motivated to give mainly for personal reasons, such as a search for meaning, a sense of responsibility for the community, tradition and sometimes, just to feel good. Usually, those with means in Israel do not contribute out of a sense of commitment or a desire to promote business relationships. They want to be in control of their giving, and to bring their knowledge from the business world. They wish to act as if they are managing investments in the social sector as they would investments in the business world, not as charity or contributions, but as a mean to promote social change. They want to be in constant connection with their beneficiaries throughout the year, not only at times of crisis and when resources are lacking.

In Israel, philanthropy is not a second nature and there is less of an expectation for the wealthy to become philanthropists. In the United States, philanthropic culture is much more prevalent and those capable of giving do not ask whether to give, but rather to which causes to give. Due to the lack of social expectation to give in Israel, there is also no expectation of financial success to be translated into charitable giving.

Committed to Give strives to be a platform that enables giving and sows the seeds of awareness surrounding philanthropy so it becomes an integral part of financial success.

 

What is the public's attitude towards philanthropy?

According to the survey, only 4.5% of the income of non-profit organizations between 2012 and 2015 came from Israeli philanthropy (donations from Israeli households, companies, and estates). Another survey called "People Can Give: Public Attitudes Towards Philanthropy (2017)" shows that the Israeli public defines philanthropy according to a prevailing perception that a private individual who contributes considerable money.

The poll shows that the Israeli public only superficially understands the map of philanthropy in Israel. 58% of the survey participants did not even know the name of one Israeli philanthropist. This is an interesting statistic since 67% of the participants also testified that their opinion of the wealthy in Israel would improve if they hear that they are involved in philanthropy.

Spotlight on Youth Philanthropy

Lom Friedman

Director of Education, Congregation Emanu-El of San Francisco

 

When teaching parents of teenagers, I often ask them about their own parents. For example, “What money messages did you learn from them, either directly or indirectly?” My own parents taught me to save and to keep a budget from a young age. As I got older they taught me about credit and compound interest. I also learned that it is impolite to ask about money or to talk about your own. Money is important, powerful, and private. This last lesson might be why I never knew about my parents’ tzedakah giving, though I knew all about their volunteering and community service. It wasn’t until recently, as the director of a Federation Jewish youth philanthropy program, did we ever talk about their long practice of giving, both inside and beyond the Jewish community. Why the distinction in sharing about giving time and talent versus giving money?

Tzedakah, the ancient Jewish practice of giving money to make the world a more just place (with the linguistic root of tzedek/justice, built right into the word) is one of the most elevated commandments in our tradition.

"Tzedakah and acts of kindness are the equivalent of all the mitzvot of the Torah" – Jerusalem Talmud, Pe'ah 1:1.

"Greater is tzedakah than all the sacrifices" – Talmud, Sukkah 49b.

 

And there is abundant wisdom and guidance from our sages about best practices, especially in communal giving. Yet in modern times, most children and teens are not guided in the practice beyond dropping a few coins in a tzedakah box once a week. And they are absorbing more lessons about money and giving than we may be intending. A third grade student who doesn’t give to the needy or social justice organizations because they don’t have their own money will likely to hold the same mindset in university, and maybe beyond. They believe that philanthropy is an activity for the super wealthy, as opposed to a mitzvah for everyone (and one that helps the receiver, the giver, and the community in equally important ways). The danger of this mindset not only fosters an unhealthy relationship to money, but it feeds the very real and present trends in giving. Philanthropists are increasingly represented by the oldest generation, in their 80s and above. And giving is becoming concentrated into fewer and fewer large donors, which threatens to create imbalances of influence in our communities. The world, including the Jewish community, needs a new generation of philanthropists; young, numerous, diverse, values-driven, and engaged.

Today, youth are exposed to social justice travesties large and small, near and far, on a daily basis via television and the internet. In his book, The Dignity of Difference, Rabbi Jonathan Sacks writes about the existential tension created by this greater awareness and the limited ability to do something about it. “Our sense of compassion for the victims of poverty, war, and famine, runs ahead of our capacity to act. Our moral sense is simultaneously activated and frustrated.” Especially for youth who cannot travel across the globe independently, who do not yet have professional skills to offer, and in most cases have little freedom even over their own schedules and transportation on a local level. Tzedakah offers one antidote to this experience of hopelessness and disconnection.

In terms of changing social ills, supporting funds for a full time, licensed social worker will likely change more lives long-term than volunteering for a day or a weekend serving meals at a homeless shelter. Making a donation to help victims of the Syrian civil war is probably more helpful than hopping on a plane to volunteer for a week, especially if you lack needed language and other skills. These examples do not belittle or minimize the value of direct service. In fact, Judaism does not offer us a choice between tzedakah and acts of loving kindness (gemilut chasadim). We are commanded to do both, and both make a unique impact (again, on givers and receivers and the community). But for youth who have so little free time and refined skills, tzedakah is an active practice for seeking out problems that need solving, making decision based on their own values, and making a real impact.

In youth philanthropy programs, we teach both fundraising and grant making skills. By researching their cause, sharing it with people in their lives, and overcoming hidden messages to not talk about money, even youth can raise significant funds…literally tens of thousands of dollars. And they contribute their own personal funds to start the process, demonstrating their own commitment to their work and their cause. In this way, giving tzedakah is both personal and communal. It becomes a venue for identifying their passions, finding their voice, and being a leader in their community.

As we lose elder members of our communities, and the number of active philanthropists shrinks as well, the world needs youth to be engaged in tzedakah. Torah and Talmud recognize this as well as human nature’s resistance to this commandment. Maimonides advises us to give no more than 20% of our possessions to tzedakah and no less than 10%. In fact, even someone receiving tzedakah, he writes, should give at least half a shekel to tzedakah (Mishneh Torah, "Laws Concerning Gifts for the Poor," 7:5). It is so interesting to me that there was a concern that someone may give too much tzedakah, that an upper limit would need to be set! And further interesting that someone who needs help would be expected to give some of that help away to others. What is the point here? As I read it, the rabbi sees the desire in the human heart to give, to help, to create a just world. But with money there are dozens of tiny questions and hesitation that stop us. Am I giving to the right place? Can I afford this? Is it really making a difference? What I see Maimonides telling us is to just get started! He gives us an upper and lower limit, and not even the poorest is excuses. Get started!

Tzedakah is a muscle, like the heart. We must use it to make it grow, grow stronger and more capable. Using it this year does not mean it will still be strong next year. It is a lifestyle and a life practice. We would not prevent our children from growing any other muscle when they are young. Like any skill or exercise, they need role models and opportunities before they are full grown adults. Even if they have very little money to give. Even if they aren’t sure it will help. Even if they have never done it before. We need them, the Jewish community needs them, and the world needs them to get started. And they need it too.

Making Impact In An Era Of Change

Liz Livingston Howard

Director of Nonprofit Executive Education, Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University 

 

Leadership and management are essential to success in the philanthropic sector. Social impact organizations rely on leaders who commit themselves to the mission and to leading efficiently and effectively. As young professionals seek to have impact, they are facing a changing landscape that requires an even broader spectrum of skills to deliver that impact across a range of organizational structures. These young professionals are increasingly pursuing education and training with the intent of meeting their missions in more meaningful ways and reaching broader social impact.

 

This trend of professional development could not come at a better time. Efficient leadership and management of nonprofits is all the more critical today, when philanthropic organizations are forced to do more with fewer resources (financial, human and capital) and new organizational forms are coming into existence, thus blurring the lines between for-profit and philanthropic ventures, all with the goal of positive global social impact.

 

Currently, we are witnessing the development of new and progressive industry structures focused on impact. These innovations are creating opportunities to do social good while engaging with capital markets. In the US, one example of this is Benefit Corporations, which are for-profit entities that share an understanding with their shareholders that success should be measured not only by profit, but also by social and environmental impact.

 

This expansion of institutional platforms dedicated to advancing social good is positive. As social problems across the globe are growing more complex, organizations need smarter and more talented leaders to develop creative solutions. Fortunately, many institutions of higher education are supporting these leaders with degree and non-degree education that provide rigorous, relevant learning opportunities to enhance their skills. At the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University, we have always had a commitment to educating leaders committed to the social sector. Today, those learning opportunities engage our senior academic faculty along with outstanding practitioners from across the social impact spectrum with the intent of educating young professionals who are seeking to use their leadership abilities to build strong organizations that change the world.

 

We are fortunate that there is an increasing interest among young people who want to have an impact in their workplaces, philanthropic organizations and communities. We are living in a global world where the concepts of philanthropy and social impact are evolving in a positive way, engaging leaders across sectors and communities to change the world for the better.

A conversation with Michal Gera Margaliot, Executive Director of the Israel Women's Network

In preparation for International Women's Day, the Executive Director of the Israel Women's Network (IWN) spoke to us about the state of women in Israel and about her perspective on how a feminist organization for social change operates in terms of resource development. About a year and a half ago, attorney Michal Gera Margaliot was elected as Executive Director of the Israel Women's Network, an organization that focuses on promoting policy and integration of gender-based thinking among decision-makers (gender mainstreaming) and works to solve specific problems that have been identified as strategic issues. Gera Margaliot explains how inequality between men and women hurts society as a whole and says the country must take responsibility for it. She stresses the need to ease the bureaucratic burden which is imposed on non-profit organizations, and hopes to receive recognition from funding bodies for the need to fund organizational infrastructures and overhead that maintain the activities of the organizations. She also aims to collaborate with other organizations in the field to consolidate small grants for large activities.

 

 

When Gera Margaliot describes the state of women in Israel today from a historical perspective, she pictures parallel processes of progress and regression that take place simultaneously. On one hand, she says, "The situation of women in general in Israel and in the world has never been better." On the other hand, "There is a backlash and new phenomena regarding the exclusion of women (pushing women out of public spaces) that are intensified. Sometimes the exclusion is tangible and there is even a sign that states ‘No women allowed’. Sometimes there is no sign, but structurally there is separation and in practice there are no women allowed. As stated recently by Judge Shaham in the ruling given in a petition we filed with the Jerusalem District Courtregarding segregation in a seminar by the Tourism Ministry: ‘Separation is a priori discrimination.’ The country makes the separation a standard and this harms women and their ability to take equal place in the public sphere. It is important to note that these are new phenomena in terms of the role that the state takes in them."

 

In addition, Gera Margaliot emphasizes that women are not a homogenous group. "There are groups of women whose status in society is excellent, while other groups of women are not doing as well. Our job is not only to strengthen the strongest, but to enable all women to realize and use their potential and ability."

 

Which trends do you identify today compared to previous decades?

"Let's take the employment market, for example. In the Jewish society in Israel, on one hand, the average participation rate of women in the work market has increased dramatically in the last 20 years, and women are currently working at a rate similar to that of men, above the OECD average. On the other hand, wage gaps remain, there is still sexual harassment in the workplace, and although many women "left the house", most of the men have not yet "entered the house" (do not take an equal part in the non-compensated work done in-house). They didn’t do it 20 years ago and they don’t do it today. This is a concrete ceiling for women, limiting their advancement in the workplace." Another area that has changed dramatically is the social attitude towards sexual harassment and abuse. "The law for the prevention of sexual harassment, which was enacted exactly 20 years ago (March 1998), revolutionized the social perception of that issue in Israel, and today men know what courtship looks like and what harassment and sexual abuse look like, even if some of them are not willing to internalize it. We know people who lost their jobs due to this behavior - Members of Knesset, ministers, managers and employees. On the other hand, in many cases, convicted sex offenders still receive ridiculously lenient punishments. So even in this area, there are no pure lines of progress or regression."

 

Tell us about the current activities of the Israel Women's Network.

"IWN is one of the oldest feminist organizations in Israel.  It was the first organization to promote many national projects, such as leadership and empowerment courses for women and programs to promote the integration of women into politics. A year and a half ago our Board examined the feminist field in Israel as well as models of activity around the world and defined the advancement of policy - legislation in the Knesset, government implementation and lawsuits in courts - as the central issue in order to change national and budgetary priorities. We are working to correct these priorities. The current priorities are very biased, and we want to create a situation where policy is determined in a way that considers how it affects women and men, as well as other groups within our society."

 

The process led to the decision to close projects and departments in the organization: “We do not focus on individual assistance and do not engage in psychological observation. We do not work for personal empowerment of women, but not because this is a job not worthy of doing. On the contrary, women certainly need to know how to demand more on a personal level - but because other organizations do it as well as we could." She emphasizes that this change is intended to enable IWN to "focus on what we do best and what is the most lacking in the field, which is a change in national and budgetary priorities at the policy level. We want a feminist world, a world where gender doesn’t limit you nor force you to do anything just because you are a man or a woman."

 

When you hear the phrase "Women and Philanthropy", what comes to mind?

"Many women are still wary to assume or exercise power, and by extension also wary of money. Even feminist women. Women and money is a combination that needs to be strengthened, as does the connection between women and philanthropy. When you say philanthropy it sounds like charity and charitableness. But as far as I'm concerned, putting money towards social change is not charity, it’s investment. Investment in my life, in the life of my family and in my community. Of course, we need to recruit wealthy women for this investment, but we must also contribute from our own resources. IWN is currently leading a process of increasing the number of small donations through standing orders as low as 10, 18, 30 NIS a month. Imagine everyone would put 10 NIS a month, what a dramatic difference in resources it would create.”

 

What are the challenges that the IWN faces in dealing with foundations?

Gera Margaliot emphasizes first of all that she believes in partnership with foundations. "Foundations have extensive experience because of their lateral perspective and organizations can benefit from it." At the same time, she lists a number of challenges that are relevant for any organization. "The fact that the application structure for each foundation is different, from the required content to the structure of the budget, makes it very difficult for continuous work. The resources required for submission and reporting are very high, and if there was a standardization of the applications it would make our work and the work of other organizations much easier." Another challenge in her opinion stems from a reduction in the overhead rate from the total grant budget. "In the past, it was customary to allow up to 20 percent overhead, whereas currently, 7 percent at best is allowed. My salary as Executive Director is paid entirely in the overhead section, even though I am completely involved in the content. And it's not just my salary, it's computers, phones, physical space - you cannot work without these things and foundations need to take that into account. "

 

When I ask her about measurement and evaluation, Gera Margaliot says she "understands the need to measure things, but not everything can be quantified. “It's easy to present numbers for some of the things we do: how many Knesset committees we attended, or count the times we appeared in media, but it does not make it more or less influential." Alongside these general challenges, Gera Margaliot stresses the unique characteristics of the feminist field: "There is simply no money", she says. “Since organizations are in a survival mode, we are not maximizing the potential of working together. Although this is not the sole responsibility of IWN, we see it as part of our role as a central factor in the feminist field to invest resources in an effort to create better communication between the various organizations and to promote networking and cooperation."

 

As a proposal for an effective action that foundations can take, Gera Margaliot notes that "There is great value in creating a shared physical infrastructure for organizations. We sit here in Beit Ha’amutot, and we work a lot more with the organizations that share the space - it facilitates collaborations. It is possible to collect several small grants to promote a larger common cause. If a foundation decides, for example, to finance capacity-development for ten organizations - say, implementing a CRM system, the cost per organization will be much lower than if every organization implemented it separately. We all know that a successful implementation of the CRM system will increase the quality of work by at least two levels, but almost no foundation agrees to finance it. "

 

Another way in which foundations can encourage gender equality is to find ways to require organizations to incorporate gender thinking.

 

What are the most significant achievements of IWN in recent years?

IWN has had many great achievements over the years, and it is important to mention them - the High Court of Justice ruling on Alice Miller, the High Court of Justice on the representation of women on boards of directors, the High Court of Justice Orit Goren on equal pay (link), dramatic legislative amendments, establishment of the Commission for Equal Opportunities at Work, the amendment to the extension of maternity leave, and more.

 

Since my time as Executive Director, during the last year and a half, we had a number of significant achievements - In the area of employmenttwo important rulings were rendered (the attorney Efrat Deutsch represented IWN): one where two Jerusalem Municipality employees sued the employer and received half a million NIS compensation for wage gaps. And the second, a court ruling regarding the Ashdod port also relates to wage discrimination. In addition, we established a unique hotline for Orthodox women. We also raise issues in the Knesset and are constantly working with the media to change public opinion and to reflect the processes that are taking place in society. We published reports describing the situation in Israel, what is happening in the world, and what needs to be done, because we want to promote a data-based policy. This is a series of actions that translate into something broader that we are very proud of.

 

Last week for example we had 22 news items in the media. That's a lot! We have dozens of news items per month. Because we understand the importance of communication. And this indicates relevance - many of the referrals come to us because we are relevantDecision-makers in the government and the Knesset also turn to us for policy recommendations. Of course, I cannot mention any by name, but there are a lot of them. Sometimes it has to remain behind the scenes, without the IWN mark. Sometimes you must work like that, and that's okay.

 

The writer is Executive Assistant to Founder & CEO at Marom Group